A sun tanner refers to a product or a device utilized to darken or to tan the skin color. This process is because of exposure to UV beams from the sun and/or artificial sources. The major artificial devices used to produce ultraviolet radiation are tanning beds. This effect could also result from chemical products, windburn, or reflected light.
Deliberate tanning is achieved by involvement in sun bathing whereas casual unintentional exposure to sun rays may have adverse effects as well as some benefits. Benefits consist of synthesis of vitamin D under the skin. Excessive exposure causes possible skin cancer, sunburns, possible early aging, and depressed immune system function. Sunscreens are made use of to prevent sunburns on parts of skin open to sun tanner equipment or the natural sun. The tanning procedure may also be accelerated by certain oils.
Tanning process differ among people. Some people change skin color quickly and with a lot of ease while others take long. This is caused by differences in types of skin and natural skin color among people. These two aspects are influenced by genetics.
Cells called melanocytes, which lie in the deepest layer of the skin produce melanin. This process is known as melanogenesis. Melanocytes create two forms of melanin, that is eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin has a dark brown color while pheomelanin is red. The work of melanin is protecting internal body organs through absorption of solar energy. Solar beams cause indirect or direct damage to DNA, which needs to be corrected by the body system through secretion of melanin.
With increased generation of melanin, skin tone becomes darker, though the UV-B component might cause some sunburn effect. The tanning effect is also attainable using artificial UV tanners. A sun tanner delivers either UVB, UVA, or both. Formation of tans by exposure to ultraviolet happens by two different processes. To begin with, UVA beams create oxidative stress that in turn causes oxidation of the already existing melanin. Once oxidized, the color of melanin turns to dark brown.
The radiation form the sun tanner also redistributes melanin from its place of storage, but its original amount remains constant. The second procedure is triggered primarily by UV-B beams. There is an increased rate of melanogenesis resulting in more melanin. This whole reaction is due to direct photodamage by UV radiation. Melanogenesis holds up the tanning process, which becomes visible after 72 hours after the initial exposure. The tan generated by increased rate of melanogenesis is more durable than that due to oxidation reaction. It protects against skin damages more than simple cosmetic function like in UV-A beams.
The sun tanner applied to produce artificial UV beams is casket-shaped. People lie in the sun tanner and ultraviolet rays are radiated on all over their bodies. There is a specified period that one can last inside the sun tanner. Beyond that period, the radiation becomes extremely destructive. The sun tanner contains a lead, on which sources of radiation are fixed.
A sun tanner is a pricey device depending on the version one needs to obtain. The difference might however not be so significant since they all attain same effects and results. One should always compare costs among producers before purchasing one. A Sun tanner can be made in various designs and sizes.
Author: Haywood HunterThis author has published 229 articles so far.