If the figures are right, we are on course now to a recession on a par with
that of the early 1980s or the early 1930s. Indeed, this is even worse than
the 1930s, as you can see from the main graph. Yet share markets, here and
elsewhere, have staged a strong recovery in recent days, with the FTSE 100
index nudging towards 4600; the last time it broke that barrier was at the
beginning of January. If the economic news is gloomy, why are markets
Let’s come back to markets in a moment, and focus first on the economy. There
is a real puzzle here. Those figures feel wrong. I would be the first to
acknowledge that I may be making a mistake here but I do expect these
estimates to be revised upwards as more data comes in. Why?
Four main reasons. The first is that the initial estimates of GDP are based on
output data and, while you can get a good feeling for the output of
manufacturing, it is much harder to get an accurate assessment of output
from the service industries, and services are much more important than
manufacturing in their share of the economy. Private-sector services are
reported as being down. Well, maybe they were but it does not feel like that
to judge from other data.
The second reason is that retail sales have been pretty strong, the June
figures particularly so, and that is an important component of the economy.
The third is that monetary data from the Bank of England suggests that broad
money supply is rising and that the Monetary Policy Committee seems a little
more optimistic that its effort to pump up the economy is working. That
would square with slightly better housing market conditions.
And the final and to me most telling reason is that the monthly estimates of
GDP from the National Institute suggest that the economy reached a turning
point in the second quarter, definitely rising in June. They are only
estimates and the National Institute is very sombre about the likely pace of
recovery. But it has a good record of getting GDP right and I would trust it
as least as much as I would the official statistics.
I am not claiming that the economy actually grew in the second quarter, though
I would not completely rule out that possibility. I just think it is
probable, when all the numbers are clear in a couple of years’ time (yes, it
takes that long for the full picture to emerge) that things did not fall
nearly as fast as suggested. Further, I think we will see this third quarter
as the bottom. What does that then suggest about the cycle?
Have a look at the main graph, which compares this cycle with previous ones.
Two points stand out. One is that whether I am right or not, we have headed
down very fast. This is a bad recession, whatever gloss you try to put on
it. The other is that even if things have bottomed out, it will be several
years before output climbs back to the peak of early last year. There is a
reason for this. It is that all recessions, this one or previous ones, take
time to correct themselves. I say “correct themselves” because
government policies, be they good, bad or indifferent, cannot suddenly
correct the imbalances that led to the recession in the first place. They
cannot correct the housing bubble; or the bank losses; or (except to a
limited extent) the shrinking of the availability of credit. And they
certainly cannot correct the collapse of world trade.
So even if this were a shallow recession, on the lines, say, of the early
1990s, it would take three years to get back to the peak. In the early 1980s
it took four years. So it seems pretty safe to predict that activity will
not return to the level of early 2008 until at best early 2011, and at worst
It also seems pretty safe to predict that even if there is a bounce in the
autumn, there will be at least a year of lack-lustre growth. So why are
The short answer is that they are not. They are merely somewhat less gloomy.
The graph on the right puts the present recovery into context. Yes, there
has been a decent recovery since March but there is a very long way to go.
However, what does seem to be happening is that having tried several times
to break through the 4500 point, last week it definitely managed to do so.
You would now expect it to move into a new trading range, perhaps between
4500 and 5000, for the second half of this year. That, at least, is the view
of Mike Lenhoff, a strategist at Brewin Dolphin, who has set 5000 as a
year-end target for the FTSE 100 index. But that does very much depend on
company profits recovering. That ought to happen, given the positive
responses companies give in the various purchasing managers’ surveys around
the world ? there was goodish data from both Germany and the eurozone as a
whole on Friday.
What we will have to get used to for the next couple of years will be a lot of
conflicting information. There will be much “green shoot spotting”,
people trying to talk up the economy. There will by contrast be plenty of
gloom-mongering too. The only sensible response to this is to be sceptical
The most unusual feature of the downturn is the huge burden of debt that has
been accumulated by individuals, by some companies and now increasingly by
governments. The issue is the extent to which this debt burden holds back
the recovery. It cannot just be wished away. It has to be serviced and
eventually paid down. For the next year or two, the main burden of that will
fall on individuals, but when we get ourselves into better shape, it will
then be the turn of the Government to get its borrowing under control. That
will take the best part of a decade ? and it is not just the British
Government that will have to pay down its debt. Other governments will be in
much the same situation, though in most instances the adjustment will not be
quite so harsh.
And markets? They look forward. They have in the past pretty consistently
signalled turning points in the economy some six months in advance. Last
autumn they went into panic mode, and you might say they correctly predicted
just how dreadful 2009 was going to be. But they turned upwards in March so
the reasonable assumption would be that the recovery begins in either the
third, or maybe the fourth, quarter of this year. Besides, in a world of
near zero interest rates, companies that pay reasonably reliable dividends
look a not-too-bad place to put some money.
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