The top shareholders at Goldman Sachs are getting restive, it is reported ?
and not before time. While the great vampire squid has been trumpeting the
modest and self-interested donations it is making to charity in an attempt
to pay reparations for the credit catastrophe, its investors are finally
rousing themselves to play their proper role in taming Wall Street pay.
The surge in trading profits this year means a bumper bonus pool for
disbursement at year-end. Long-term shareholders, though, have done less
well. Goldman issued so much new stock to bolster its balance sheet during
the market panic that there will actually be a big drop in earnings per
share. Clipping the bonuses of the bankers would boost earnings handily,
The immediate comeback from Goldman after yesterday’s gossip was that no
investor has actually gone as far as demanding a specific meeting to discuss
this issue. In any case, it says, employee and shareholder interests are
aligned. That is missing the point.
Those interests are indeed aligned, directionally, most of the time, but it is
not about direction, it is about proportion. How much of the upside should
employees have, how much should go to shareholders?
We should all favour a higher proportion to shareholders, for a couple of
reasons. Most obviously, many of us will be shareholders through our pension
and mutual funds. Also, if shareholders have more to lose when bets go awry,
they might pay more attention to the risk management systems within banks,
an area that was woefully under-examined in the run-up to the crisis.
At investment banks, of course, the wage bill of top earners really does
crater the bottom line. Somewhere between 40 and 50 per cent of net revenues
have traditionally been put into the pool for salaries, benefits and
end-of-year bonuses. It is a good time for shareholders of Goldman and its
peers to be pressuring for that number to come down.
The returns on equity that banks enjoyed during the reckless years are going
to be coming down as regulators apply new curbs on derivatives trading and
demand that big bets are backed by more capital. Shareholders ought to be
compensated for these earnings-crimping reforms.
Go on. Strike up the usual chorus: “If you cut bonuses, you will simply
drive the best employees to leave for the competition.”
I wouldn’t deny that entirely, but it is not the whole truth. If it were, how
would Goldman be able to boast, as it did yesterday, that its compensation
ratio has always been “at or among the lowest” in the industry?
Reputation and intellectual dynamism counts, just a little, even when it is
bankers who are choosing where to work. It is also tempting to call some
bluffs, and see if lower-paid employees really are less talented than the
If compensation is coming under pressure all across Wall Street, the issue
should be less acute, in any case. And shareholders have an incentive to act
together to douse the public fury on Wall Street pay. It is difficult to
know how long governments can hold the line against pay caps and other
draconian measures sure to have unintended consequences.
The way bankers are paid, and the structural incentives they have to make
reckless bets that rebound on taxpayers, certainly are proper matters for
regulators, politicians and the public. But the amount they are paid ? that
is squarely the responsibility of the people who own the company.
Shareholders’ silence on pay has been one of the odd failures of the market
economy, not just in banking but across the stock market. Institutional
investors delegate decisions on executive compensation to a
self-perpetuating class of directors, who sit on each other’s remuneration
committees and bid up each other’s pay in the name of “competition for
Investors love a chief executive with a reputation for locking the stationery
cupboard in the name of cost-cutting. So why do they turn a blind eye to
largesse in the boardroom?
Usually, the executive wage bill does not put a big enough dent in earnings
per share for any single shareholder to be bothered with. That’s not the
case on Wall Street.
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