Author: By Pete Yost and Mike Feinsilber, Associated Press
McNamara died at 5:30 a.m. (0930 GMT) at his home, his wife Diana told The
Associated Press. She said he had been in failing health for some time.
For all his healing efforts, McNamara was fundamentally associated with the
Vietnam War, “McNamara’s war,” the country’s most disastrous foreign
venture, the only American war to end in abject withdrawal rather than
Known as a policymaker with a fixation for statistical analysis, McNamara was
recruited to run the Pentagon by President John F. Kennedy in 1961 from the
presidency of the Ford Motor Co. He stayed seven years, longer than anyone
since the job’s creation in 1947.
His association with Vietnam became intensely personal. Even his son, as a
Stanford University student, protested against the war while his father was
running it. At Harvard, McNamara once had to flee a student mob through
underground utility tunnels. Critics mocked McNamara mercilessly; they made
much of the fact that his middle name was “Strange.”
After leaving the Pentagon on the verge of a nervous breakdown, McNamara
became president of the World Bank and devoted evangelical energies to the
belief that improving life in rural communities in developing countries was
a more promising path to peace than the buildup of arms and armies.
A private person, McNamara for many years declined to write his memoirs, to
lay out his view of the war and his side in his quarrels with his generals.
In the early 1990s he began to open up. He told Time magazine in 1991 that
he did not think the bombing of North Vietnam ? the biggest bombing campaign
in history up to that time ? would work but he went along with it “because
we had to try to prove it would not work, number one, and (because) other
people thought it would work.”
Finally, in 1993, after the Cold War ended, he undertook to write his memoirs
because some of the lessons of Vietnam were applicable to the post-Cold War
period “odd as though it may seem.”
“In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam” appeared in 1995. McNamara
disclosed that by 1967 he had deep misgivings about Vietnam ? by then he had
lost faith in America’s capacity to prevail over a guerrilla insurgency that
had driven the French from the same jungled countryside.
Despite those doubts, he had continued to express public confidence that the
application of enough American firepower would cause the Communists to make
peace. In that period, the number of US casualties ? dead, missing and
wounded ? went from 7,466 to over 100,000.
“We of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations acted according to what we
thought were the principles and traditions of our country. But we were
wrong. We were terribly wrong,” McNamara, then 78, told The Associated Press
in an interview ahead of the book’s release.
The best-selling mea culpa renewed the national debate about the war and
prompted bitter criticism against its author.
“Where was he when we needed him?” a Boston Globe editorial asked. A New York
Times editorial referred to McNamara as offering the war’s dead only a
“prime-time apology and stale tears, three decades late.”
McNamara wrote that he and others had not asked the five most basic questions:
Was it true that the fall of South Vietnam would trigger the fall of all
Southeast Asia? Would that constitute a grave threat to the West’s security?
What kind of war ? conventional or guerrilla ? might develop? Could we win
it with US troops fighting alongside the South Vietnamese? Should we not
know the answers to all these questions before deciding whether to commit
He discussed similar themes in the 2003 documentary “The Fog of War: Eleven
Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara.” With the US in the first year
of the war in Iraq, it became a popular and timely art-house attraction and
won the Oscar for best documentary feature.
The Iraq war, with its similarities to Vietnam, at times brought up McNamara’s
name, in many cases in comparison with another unpopular defence secretary,
Donald H. Rumsfeld. McNamara was among former secretaries of defence and
state who met twice with President George W. Bush in 2006 to discuss Iraq
In the Kennedy administration, McNamara was a key figure in both the
disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of April 1961 and the Cuban missile crisis
18 months later. The crisis was the closest the world came to a nuclear
confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States.
McNamara served as the World Bank president for 12 years. He tripled its loans
to developing countries and changed its emphasis from grandiose industrial
projects to rural development.
After retiring in 1981, he championed the causes of nuclear disarmament and
aid by the richest nation for the world’s poorest. He became a global elder
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